Suárez-Albanchez, J., Vizcaino-Barcelo, A., Gutiérrez-Broncano, S., & Jiménez-Estévez, P. (2023). Internal Corporate Social Responsibility in the Spanish Computer Consultancy Industry and Its Impact on Worker Turnover. Economics & Management Information, 2(1), 1–16.

Internal Corporate Social Responsibility in the Spanish Computer Consultancy Industry and Its Impact on Worker Turnover

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought a new form of work that is here to stay, the remote work, this way of working favors turnover between companies since employees can work anywhere in the world regardless of where the worker lives. The aim of this paper is to analyze how internal corporate social responsibility and, particularly, human resources policies can influence the employees job satisfaction, their organizational commitment and their turnover intention. This paper can help companies know how to retain their “intellectual” capital. Methods: for this research we have used a questionnaire with a scale composed of 5 levels which has been distributed among professionals from different companies in the spanish computer consulting industry. A structural equation model was applied to test the hypothesis with the help of SmartPLS software. Results: from the analysis of the data, it is concluded that there is a positive relationship between human resources policies and workers job satisfaction, as well as a positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment and a negative relationship between workers' job satisfaction and their turnover intention, namely, the better the human resources policies, the greater the job satisfaction and minor the turnover intention. Secondly, we also observed the existence of an indirect or mediating relationship which indicates that job satisfaction has a positive impact on organizational commitment and this in turn in the turnover intention with an even greater impact than that of the direct relationship. Conclusions: from this work we can conclude that adequate human resources policies improve the employees job satisfaction, thereby improving organizational commitment and significantly reducing their turnover intention, which is very important for companies that want to retain their employees and can provide a competitive advantage over other companies in the sector.

HRM policies organizational commitment job satisfaction turnover intention


  1. Aydogdu S, Asikgil B. An Empirical Study of the Relationship Among Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention. International Review of Management and Marketing 2011; 1: 43–53.
  2. SHRM. New Survey Finds 75% of Employees Looking for New Jobs 'It's All About the Money'. PR Newswire: Alexandria, 2004. Available online: http://www. of-employees-looking-for-new-jobs-its-all-about-the- money-75585522.html (accessed on 28 February 2023).
  3. Das BL, Baruah M. Employee retention: A review of Literature. Journal of Business and Management 2013; 14: 8–16. DOI:
  4. Hall JL. Variations on a Theme of Resignation: Idling by, Backpedaling, or Driving Forward?. Public Administration Review 2022; 82: 7–11. DOI:
  5. Randstad Research. Informe De RotacióN Laboral 2022. Available online:,de%20un%2017%25%20en%202022. (accessed on 11 December 2022).
  6. INE. Encuesta De PoblacióN Activa 2019. Variables De Submuestra AñO 2018. Avalaible online: (accessed on 14 May 2022).
  7. Martin L, Nguyen-Thi UT, Mothe C. Human Resource Practices, Perceived Employability and Turnover Intention: Does Age Matter?. Applied Economics, 2021; 53: 3306–3320. DOI:
  8. Al-Dalahmeh M, HÉDer-Rima M. The Effect of Talent Management Practices on Employee Turnover Intention in the Information and Communication Technologies (Icts) Sector: Case of Jordan. Problems and Perspectives in Management 2021; 18: 59. DOI:
  9. Long CS, Ajagbe MA, Kowang TO. Addressing the Issues on Employees’ Turnover Intention in the Perspective of HRM Practices in SME. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 2014; 129: 99–104. DOI:
  10. Bambacas M, Kulik TC. Job Embeddedness in China: How HR Practices Impact Turnover Intentions. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 2013; 24: 1933–1952. DOI:
  11. AEEC. La Consultoría EspañOla; El Sector En Cifras: Madrid, España, 2021.
  12. Dibbern J, Winkler J, Heinzl A. Explaining Variations in Client Extra Costs Between Software Projects Offshored to India. MIS Quarterly 2008; 32: 333–366. DOI:
  13. Birur S, Muthiah K. Turnover Intentions Among Repatriated Employees in an Emerging Economy: the Indian Experience. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 2013; 24: 3667–3680. DOI:
  14. Smite D, Solingen R, Chatzipetrou P. The offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover. IEEE Software 2020; 37: 54–62. DOI:
  15. Smite D, Solingen R. What’s the True Hourly Cost of Offshoring? IEEE Software 2016; 33: 60–70. DOI:
  16. Ivancevich JM, Konopaske Robert, Matteson MT. Organizational Behavior and Man-Agement, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Education: New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  17. Lerouge C, Nelson A, Blanton JE. The Impact of Role Stress Fit and Self-Esteem on the Job Attitudes of IT Professionals. Information and Management 2006; 43: 928-938. DOI:
  18. Arnold T, Flaherty KE, Voss KE, Mowen JC. Role Stressors and Retail Performance: The Role of Perceived Competitive Climate. Journal of Retailing 2009; 85: 194–205. DOI:
  19. Aghdasi S, Kiamanesh AR, Ebrahim AN. Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment: Testing the Mediatory Role of Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction. Pro-Cedia Social and Behavioural Sciences 2011; 29: 1965–1976. DOI:
  20. Karatepe OM, Yavas V, Babakus E, Avci T. Does Gender Moderate the Effects of Role Stress in Frontline Service Jobs?. Journal of Business Research 2006; 59: 1087–1093. DOI:
  21. Duxbury L, Higgins C. Work Life in the New Millennium: Where Are We? Where Do We Need to Go?. Discussion Paper 2001; 12: Canadian Policy Research Networks.
  22. Wegge J, Schmidt K, Parkes C, Van Dick K. Taking a Sickie: Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement As Interactive Predictors of Absenteeism in a Public Organization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 2007; 80: 77–89. DOI:
  23. Cho YN, Rutherford BN, Park JK. The Impact of Emotional Labor in a Retail Environment. Journal of Business Research 2013; 66: 670–677. DOI:
  24. Yamaguchi I. A Japan–US Cross-Cultural Study of Relationships Among Team Autonomy, Organizational Social Capital, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment. Interna-Tional Journal of Intercultural Relations 2013; 37: 58–71. DOI:
  25. Brough P. Frame R. Predicting Police Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions: The Role of Social Support and Police Organisational Variables. New Zealand Journal of Psychology 2004; 33: 8–16.
  26. Suárez-Albanchez J, Gutierrez-Broncano S, Jimenez-Estevez P, Blazquez-Resino JJ. Organizational Support and Turnover Intention in the Spanish IT Consultancy Sector: Role of Organizational Commitment. Cogent Social Sciences 2022; 8: 2051790. DOI:
  27. Suárez-Albanchez J, Blazquez-Resino JJ, Gutierrez-Broncano S, Jimenez-Estevez P. Occupational Health and Safety, Organisational Commitment, and Turnover Intention in the Spanish IT Consultancy Sector. International. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021; 18: 5658. DOI:
  28. Staufenbiel T, Konig C. A Model for the Effects of Job Insecurity on Performance, Turnover Intention and Absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 2010; 83: 101–117. DOI:
  29. De La Cuesta M. Valor C. Responsabilidad Social De La Empresa: Concepto, MediciÓN Y Desarrollo En España. BoletÍN EconÓMico Del ICE 2003; Nº 2755: 7–20.
  30. Comisión Europea. Libro Verde: Fomentar Un Marco Europeo Para La Responsabilidad Social De Las Empresas; CEE: Brussels, Belgium, 2001.
  31. Aguilera RV, Rupp DE, Williams CA, Ganapathi J. Putting the S Back in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Multilevel Theory of Social Change in Organizations. Academy of Management Review 2007; 32: 836–863. DOI:
  32. Peterson, D. K. The Relationship Between Perceptions of Corporate Citizenship and Organizational Commitment. Business & Society 2004; 43: 296–319. DOI:
  33. Rupp DE, Ganapathi J, Aguilera RV, Williams CA. Employee Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility: An Organizational Justice Framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior: the International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior 2006; 27: 537–543. DOI:
  34. Brammer S, Millington A, Rayton B. The Contribution of Corporate Social Responsibility to Organizational Commitment. the International Journal of Human Resource Management 2007; 18: 1701–1719. DOI:
  35. Collier J, Esteban R. Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Commitment. Business Ethics: A European Review 2007; 16: 19–33. DOI:
  36. Macassa G, Mcgrath C, Tomaselli G, Buttigieg SC. Corporate Social Responsibility and Internal Stakeholders’ Health and Well-Being in Europe: A Systematic Descriptive Review. Health Promotion International 2021; 36: 866–883. DOI:
  37. Luchak AA. What Kind of Voice Do Loyal Employees Use?. British Journal of Industrial Relations 2003; 41: 115–134. DOI:
  38. Fox S, Spector PE. Relations of Emotional Intelligence, Practical Intelligence, General Intelligence, and Trait Affectivity With Interview Outcomes: It's Not All Just ‘G’. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior 2000; 21: 203–220. DOI:<203::AID-JOB38>3.0.CO;2-Z
  39. Bhuian SN, Mengue B. An Extension and Evaluation of Job Characteristics, Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in An Expatriate, Guest Worker, Sales Setting. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 2002; 22: 1–11.
  40. Sankar CS, Yeong WY. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction of Technical Personnel in the US, Singapore, and India. Engineering Management Journal 1997; 9: 151–22. DOI:
  41. Petrescu AI, Simmons R. Human Resource Management Practices and Workers' Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Manpower 2008; 89: 323–338.
  42. Mudor, H. Conceptual Framework on the Relationship Between Human Resource Management Practices, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies 2011; 2: 41–49. DOI:
  43. Bastida R, Marimon F, Carreras L. Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Job Satisfaction in Nonprofit Organizations. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 2018; 89; 323–338. DOI:
  44. Zardasht P, Omed S, Taha S. Importance of HRM Policies on Employee Job Satisfaction. Black Sea Journal of Management and Marketing 2020; 1: 49–57. DOI:
  45. Celma-Benaiges M, MartÍNez-GarcÍA E, Raya J. An Analysis of CSR in Human Resource Management Practices and Its Impact on Employee Job Satisfaction in Catalonia, Spain. European Accounting and Management Review 2016; 3: 45–71. DOI:
  46. De Juana-Espinosa S, Rakowska A. Public Sector Motivational Practices and Their Effect on Job Satisfaction: Country Differences. European Journal of Management and Business Economics 2018; 27: 141–154. DOI:
  47. Garmendia A, Elorza U, Aritzeta A, Madinabeitia‐Olabarria D. High‐Involvement HRM, Job Satisfaction and Productivity: A Two Wave Longitudinal Study of A Spanish Retail Company. Human Resource Management Journal 2021; 31: 341–357. DOI:
  48. Cho D-H, Son J-M. Job Embeddedness and Turnover Intentions: An Empirical Investigation of Construction It Industries. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology 2011; 40: 101–110.
  49. Koys DJ. The Effects of Employee Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, and Turnover on Organizational Effectiveness: a Unit-Level. Pers Psychol 2001; 54: 101–14. DOI:
  50. Shaw Jd, Gupta N, Delery Je. Alternative Conceptualizations of the Relationship Between Voluntary Turnover and Organizational Performance. Academy of Management 2005; 48: 50–68. DOI:
  51. Yucel I, Bektas C. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Demographic Charac-Teristics Among Teachers in Turkey: Younger Is Better?. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2012; 46: 1598–1608. DOI:
  52. Cohen A. Multiple Commitments in the Workplace: an Integrative Approach; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2003.
  53. Morrow P. The Theory and Measurement of Work Commitment; Jai Press Inc: Greenwich, CT, USA, 1993.
  54. Ehrhardt K, Miller JS, Freeman SJ, Hom PW. An Examination of the Relationship Between Training Comprehensiveness and Organizational Commitment: Further Exploration of Training Perceptions and Employee Attitudes. Human Resource Development Quarterly 2011; 22: 459–489. DOI:
  55. Bentein K, Vandenberg RJ, Vandenberghe C, Stinglhamber F. The Role of Change in the Relationship Between Commitment and Turnover: A Latent Growth Modeling Approach. The Journal of Applied Psychology 2005; 90; 468-482. DOI:
  56. Wright TA, Bonett DG. The Moderating Effects of Employee Tenure on the Relation Between Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: A Metaanalysis. The Journal of Applied Psychology 2002; 87: 1183-1190. DOI:
  57. Tarigan V, Ariani, DW. Empirical Study Relations Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention. Advances in Management and Applied Economics 2015; 5: 21.
  58. Lambert E, Hogan N. the Importance of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Shaping Turnover Intent: A Test of A Causal Model. Criminal Justice Review 2009; 34: 96–118. DOI:
  59. Chen CF. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Flight Attendants’ Turnover Intentions: A Note. Journal of Air Transport Management 2006; 12: 274–276. DOI:
  60. Magfuroh K, Herminingsih A. The Role of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Justice in Influencing Turnover Intention Through Job Satisfaction As Its Mediates Variable. Dinasti International Journal of Education Management and Social Science 2021; 2: 596–605. DOI:
  61. Wong Y, Wong Y. The Effects of Perceived Organisational Support and Affective Commitment on Turnover Intention: A Test of Two Competing Models. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management 2017; 8: 2–21. DOI:
  62. Yamazakia Y, Petchdee S. Turnover Intention, Organizational Commitment, and Specific Job Satisfaction Among Production Employees in Thailand. Journal of Business and Management 2015; 4: 22–38. DOI:
  63. Cranny CJ, Smith PC, Stone E. Job Satisfaction: How People Feel About Their Jobs; Lexington Books: Lexington, KY, USA, 1992.
  64. Spector PE. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice; John Wily & Sons: New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  65. Spector PE. Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences; Sage: Southend Oaks, CA, USA, 1997. DOI:
  66. Bateman TS, Organ DW. Job Satisfaction and the Good Soldier: the Relationship Between Affect and Employee “Citizenship”. Academy of Management Journal 1983; 26: 587–595. DOI:
  67. Koch JL, Steers RM. Job Attachment, Satisfaction, and Turnover Among Public Sector Employees. Journal of Vocational Behavior 1978; 12: 119–128. DOI:
  68. Smith P, Kendall L, Hulin C. The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement: A Strategy for the Study of Actitudes Chicago; Rand Mcnally Psychology Series: Chicago, IL, USA, 1969.
  69. Vandenberg RJ, Lance CE. Examining the Causal Order of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. Journal of Management 1992; 18: 153–167. DOI:
  70. Williams LJ, Hazer JT. Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction and Commitment in Turnover Models: A Reanalysis Using Latent Variable Structural Equation Methods. Journal of Applied Psychology 1986; 71: 219. DOI:
  71. Christian MS, Garza AS, Slaughter JE. Work Engagement: A Quantitative Review and Test of Its Relations With Task and Contextual Performance. Personnel Psychology 2011; 64: 89-136. DOI:
  72. Karatepe OM, Karadas G. Do Psychological Capital and Work Engagement Foster Frontline Employees’ Satisfaction? A Study in the Hotel Industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Manager 2015; 27: 1254-1278. DOI:
  73. Bakker AB, Schaufeli WB. Positive Organizational Behavior: Engaged Employees in Flourishing Organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior 2008; 29: 147-154. DOI:
  74. Karatepe OM. High-Performance Work Practices and Hotel Employee Performance: the Mediation of Work Engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management 2013; 32: 132-140. DOI:
  75. Ullrich A, Fitzgerald P. Stress Experienced By Physicians and Nurses in the Cancer Ward. Soc Sci Med 1990; 31: 1013-22. DOI:
  76. Yousaf A, Sanders K, Abbas Q. Organizational/Occupational Commitment and Organizational/Occupational Turnover Intentions. Personnel Review 2015; 44: 470–491. DOI:
  77. Wong C, Spence H. The Influence of Frontline Manager Job Strain on Burnout, Commitment and Turnover Intention: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2015; 52: 1824–1833. DOI:
  78. Liu S, Gyabeng E, Sewu GJA, Nkrumah NK, Dartey B. Occupational health and safety and turnover intention in the Ghanaian power industry: The mediating effect of organizational commitment. BioMed Research International 2019. DOI:
  79. Martín Sierra, C. Gestión de recursos humanos y retención del capital humano estratégico: análisis de su impacto en los resultados de empresas innovadoras españolas. 2011.
  80. Vega MMC, Urra GM, Bernales GS. Cómo influye la satisfacción laboral sobre el desempeño: caso empresa de retail. Theoria 2010, 19: 21-36.
  81. Hair JF, Risher JJ, Sarstedt M, Ringle CM. When to Use and How to Report the Results of PLS-SEM. Eur. Bus. Rev 2019; 31: 2–24. DOI:
  82. Hair Jr JF, Sarstedt M, Ringle CM, Gudergan SP. Advanced Issues in Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling; Sage Publications: Southend Oaks, CA, USA, 2017.
  83. Barclay D, Higgins C, Thompson R. the Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach Modelling: Personal Computer Adoption and Use As Illustration. Technology Studies 1995; 2: 285–309.
  84. Urbach N, Ahlemann F. Structural Equation Modeling in Information Systems Research Using Partial Least Squares. Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application 2010; 11: 5–40.
  85. Nunnally J, Bernstein I. Psychometric Theory (3a Ed.); Mcgraw-Hill: New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  86. Hair J, Ringle C, Sarstedt M. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling: Rigorous Applications, Better Results and Higher Acceptance. Long Range Planning, 2013: 46: 1–12. DOI:
  87. Fornell C, Larcker DF. Evaluating Structural Equation Models With Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research 1981; 18: 39–50. DOI:
  88. Mathieu J, Taylor S. Clarifying Conditions and Decision Points For Mediational Type Inferences in Organizational Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior 2006; 27: 1031–1056. DOI:
  89. Sarstedt M, Ringle C, Hair J. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2017. DOI:
  90. Hair J, Hult G, Ringle C, Sarstedt M. A Primer on Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM); Sage: Southend Oaks, CA, USA, 2014.
  91. Hayes AF, Preacher KJ, Myers TA. Mediation and the Estimation of Indirect Effects in Political Communication Research; in: Bucy EP, Holbert RL (Eds); the Sourcebook for Political Communication Research: Methods, Measures and Analytical Techniques; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2011.
  92. Aburumman O, Salleh A, Omar K, Abadi M. The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices and Career Satisfaction on Employee’S Turnover Intention. Management Science Letters 2020; 10: 641–652. DOI:
  93. Juhdi N, Pa'wan F, Hansaram RMK. HR Practices and Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Engagement in A Selected Region in Malaysia. the International Journal of Human Resource Management 2013; 24: 3002–3019. DOI:
  94. Blanco, M., Gutiérrez, S. (2008). El empleo del modelo de gestión de la calidad total en el sector de la distribución comercial en España: El caso de Mercadona. Universia Business Review 2008; 17: 40-63.
  95. Rubio-Andrés, M., Montoya-Monsalve, J. N., Gutiérrez Broncano, S. Could innovative teams provide the necessary flexibility to compete in the current context?. Cuadernos de Gestión 2015; 15: 145-163. DOI:
  96. Al Halbusi, H., Ruiz-Palomino, P., Jimenez-Estevez, P., Gutiérrez-Broncano, S. How upper/middle managers' ethical leadership activates employee ethical behavior? The role of organizational justice perceptions among employees. Frontiers in Psychology 2021; 12: 652471. DOI:
  97. Suárez-Albanchez J, Jimenez-Estevez P, Blazquez-Resino JJ, Gutierrez-Broncano S. Team Autonomy and Organizational Support, Well-Being, and Work Engagement in the Spain Computer Consultancy Industry: the Mediating Effect of Emotional Intelligence. Administrative Sciences 2022; 12: 85. DOI:

Supporting Agencies

  1. Founding: N/A